Немировский Александр Аркадьевич

кандидат исторических наук

Старший научный сотрудник Института всеобщей истории РАН.

Ист.: Scripta antique. Вопросы древней истории, филологии, искусства и материальной культуры: альманах. Том V. 2016. Москва: Собрание, 2016.


Сказка об Апопи и Секененра: проблема завершения и интерпретации сюжета

Scripta antique. Вопросы древней истории, филологии, искусства и материальной культуры. Том V. 2016. Москва: Собрание, 2016. С. 132–166.

На основании анализа многочисленных фольклорных паралллелей к новоегипетской Сказке об Апопи и Секененра и ее сохранившегося начала автор приходит к следующим выводам: независимо от участи реального Секененра (который едва ли погиб в бою с гиксосами Авариса), сюжет Сказки не был связан с фиванско-гиксосскими войнами и должен был включать мирное разрешение взаимодействия Апопи и Секененра благодаря хитроумному ответу фиванской стороны (подобному ответам Эзопа и Ахикара в аналогичных фольклорных сюжетах); этот ответ должен был, по-видимому, предложить некий социально «умаленный» персонаж при некоем участии Амона-Ра.


Late New Kingdom Tale about Apophis and Seqenenre in spite of several new special treatments (e.g., the works by A.Paulet, C. Di BiaseDyson, C.Manassa, A.Banschikova and our own ones) still proposes the same main puzzles for researchers as earlier: 1) why both antagonists, the Hyksos and the Theban ones, are titled and described in the Tale as legitimate kings of Egypt (nsw), thus being presented as executing this office simultaniously; 2) Apophis is presented as “alien” and impious ruler (and the very fact of his separate Hyksos kingship in Egypt is attested as “disaster” for Egypt) and Seqenenre – as “our own” and pious one, thus occupying negative and positive poles of their opposition; why then Seqenenre is described as a weak, humble and helpless person in the face of Apophis’ challenge? Does it mean that the Tale was a kind of burlesque parody? 3) Could the lost ending of the Tale have any connotations with Theban “liberation war(s)” against Hyksos rule, and did Seqenenre conduct such a war in real history (as it is often supposed due to deadly wounds seen on his mummy)? The present paper re-studies this questions using among other data the comparison with 16 tales and legends where a powerful “alien” king deliberately challenges a weaker king who represents “our own” side with inexecutable or absurd demands: three Korean folk-tales, Indian tales of 922 *G type, Buddhist legend of a King who deported old aged citizens, Egyptian tale of Setna Khaemwaset and Sa-Osiris (Setna II), tale of Amasis and Ethiopian King (Plut. Sept. sap. 6), Arabian Nights tale of Jali’ad and Shimas, The Legend of Queen of Sheba giving riddles to Solomon (1 K. 10, 2 Ch. 9), Phoenician legend of riddling in between Solomon and Hiram of Tyre, Russian folk-tale Afanasyev 322, Persian legend in “Chatrang-namak” about origin of chess playing, Avestan and Sassanian legends of Yoishta Friyan, and especially an episode from The Aesop Romance and Aramaean Tale of Ahiqar, in both of which the mighter king complains, just as in the Tale of Apophis and Seqenenre, that he is troubled by the roar of some beasts in his far counterpartner’s city. Our conclusions are as follows. The Tale of Apophis and Seqenenre belongs to the same folktale type as stories listed above; it is a literary composition using the corresponding folkore plot, neither a parody nor some belletrized “introduction” in Theban-Hyksos wars. The combination of (1) solidarity with “our own” king as a representator of “our side” and often a positive hero and (2) the weakness and unheroic behaviour of ther same king, which is present so obviously in our Tale, is just typical for the folktale type in discussion. The ending of the story, as it is presumed by this folktale type and by recognizing Apophis as nsw in our Tale, had to be a peaceful and appeasing success of “our own” Theban side; some witty answer(s) (like those ones of Aesop and Ahiqar) had to turn Hyksos king to become more respectful to Thebans and to recognize the great powers of Re. Historical considerations make it not very probable that Seqenenre was killed in battle against Avaris rulers and not by some other enemies (Kushite, or Libyan, or local Egyptian ones, including so called “lesser Hyksos”, i.e. Asiatics ruling in some Egyptian localities; or, at last, by mutineers or conspirators), but in any case his violent death hardly could have been used or referred to in our Tale. Apophis of the Tale is more probaby Aaqenenre than Awoserre (for some reasons we think that three various prenomens combining with nomen of Apophis belong to three different kings of this nomen, as it was thought once, and not to one king who had twice changed his prenomen).

«Не дай мне Бог сойти с ума»: Еще раз о вавилонском «Диалоге господина и раба»